On 26 June 1945, Turkey became a charter member of the United Nations. BILSAT-1 and RASAT are the scientific Earth observation satellites operated by the TÜBİTAK Space Technologies Research Institute. Turkey is bordered on its northwest by Greece and Bulgaria; north by the Black Sea; northeast by Georgia; east by Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran; southeast by Iraq; south by Syria and the Mediterranean Sea; and west by the Aegean Sea. [527] After sweeping the Middle East's television market over the past decade, Turkish shows have aired in more than a dozen South and Central American countries in 2016. Istanbul has small surface area. The population of Turkey is expected to grow by 874,000 in 2020 and reach 84,515,000 in 2021. This page was last changed on 13 October 2020, at 21:33. For many years Kurdish guerrillas of the Kurdistan Workers Party (known as the PKK; Turkish: Kürdistan İşçi Partisi) have been fighting the Turkish government. The majority of Turkey's inhabitants live within its urbanized cities, with just 27% of the total population living in rural areas. [444][445][446][447], The Ministry of National Education is responsible for pre-tertiary education. won the 1995–96 FIBA Korać Cup, were the runners-up of the 2018–19 EuroLeague and the 1992–93 FIBA Saporta Cup, and finished third at the 1999–2000 EuroLeague and the 2000–01 SuproLeague. Even further east, there was an extension of the Habsburg-Ottoman conflict, in that the Ottomans also had to send soldiers to their farthest and easternmost vassal and territory, the Aceh Sultanate[75][76] in Southeast Asia, to defend it from European colonizers as well as the Latino invaders who had crossed from Latin America and had Christianized the formerly Muslim-dominated Philippines. [451] Basic education in Turkey is said to lag behind other OECD countries, with significant differences between high and low performers. [440], In a mid-2010s poll, 2.9% of Turkish respondents identified as atheists. [260], Amnesty International stated that it had gathered evidence of war crimes and other violations committed by Turkish and Turkey-backed Syrian forces who are said to "have displayed a shameful disregard for civilian life, carrying out serious violations and war crimes, including summary killings and unlawful attacks that have killed and injured civilians". [164][165][166][167] The Turkey 2015 report of the European Commission stated that "the independence of the judiciary and respect of the principle of separation of powers have been undermined and judges and prosecutors have been under strong political pressure. It was established in 1453. [48] Starting from 714 BC, Urartu shared the same fate and dissolved in 590 BC,[49] when it was conquered by the Medes. [457] Turkey is a member of the European Higher Education Area and actively participates in the Bologna Process. Each province has its own little government but they can only make decisions about small things: the government in Ankara decides important issues. [505] Galatasaray won the UEFA Cup and UEFA Super Cup in 2000. Turkey's varied landscapes are the product of complex earth movements that have shaped the region over thousands of years and still manifest themselves in fairly frequent earthquakes and occasional volcanic eruptions. The largest city in Turkey is , with a population of people. . During the war, 500,000 Armenians in the Ottoman Empire were massacred in the so-called Armenian Genocide. [390] Arabic and Zaza are the mother tongues of 2.39 percent of the population, and several other languages are the mother tongues of smaller parts of the population. Another revolution in Turkish poetry came about in 1941 with the Garip movement led by Orhan Veli, Oktay Rıfat and Melih Cevdet. Population density will go up to 124.3 people per square kilometer. [283], Mountains close to the coast prevent Mediterranean influences from extending inland, giving the central Anatolian plateau of the interior of Turkey a continental climate with sharply contrasting seasons. His second book was about palace cuisine during the reign of Mehmet II. In 2015, Aziz Sancar, a Turkish professor at the University of North Carolina, won the Nobel Chemistry Prize along with Tomas Lindahl and Paul Modrich, for their work on how cells repair damaged DNA. While the population will continue to grow, it will do so slowly. Starting around 1200 BC, the coast of Anatolia was heavily settled by Aeolian and Ionian Greeks. The forecasted population for 2020 is 83,835,750 and it isn't expected to hit 90 million until around 2035. The Mevlevi Order of dervishes, which was established in Konya during the 13th century by Sufi poet Celaleddin Rumi, played a significant role in the Islamization of the diverse people of Anatolia who had previously been Hellenized. After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. [503] The country's position between Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Sea helped the Turks in gaining complete control of the major trade routes, and an ideal landscape and climate allowed plants and animals to flourish. [22] In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmud II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy, along with the emancipation of all citizens. Turkey is expected to see continued growth into the future, and only time will tell if its largest cities will be able to keep up. The Osman Gazi Bridge (2016) connects the northern and southern shores of the Gulf of İzmit. İstanbul University was the first university in Turkey. [198] In 2015, Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar formed a "strategic alliance" against Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. [452] Turkey is ranked 32nd out of 34 in the OECD's PISA study. In the Caucasus campaign, however, the Russian forces had the upper hand from the beginning, especially after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915). [citation needed] The first state that was called Armenia by neighbouring peoples was the state of the Armenian Orontid dynasty, which included parts of eastern Turkey beginning in the 6th century BC. Istanbul is called a transcontinental city; meaning the city is located on two continents. [283] The Turkish Black Sea coast receives the greatest amount of precipitation and is the only region of Turkey that receives high precipitation throughout the year. Turkish Satellite Assembly, Integration and Test Center (UMET) is a spacecraft production and testing facility owned by the Ministry of National Defence and operated by the Turkish Aerospace Industries (TAI). Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization. [336] Opened in 2013, the Marmaray tunnel under the Bosphorus connects the railway and metro lines of Istanbul's European and Asian sides; while the nearby Eurasia Tunnel (2016) provides an undersea road connection for motor vehicles. [282], The coastal areas of Turkey bordering the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas have a temperate Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers and mild to cool, wet winters. Turkey's extraordinary ecosystem and habitat diversity has produced considerable species diversity. [407] However, AKP policies have also caused an increase in interest and support for secularism in Turkey. In the early years of the 21st century, the chronically high inflation was brought under control; this led to the launch of a new currency, the Turkish new lira (Yeni Türk Lirası) in 2005, to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy. Russian forces advanced into northeastern Anatolia and controlled the major cities there until retreating from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk following the Russian Revolution (1917). [162], Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments (such as the General Directorate of Security and Gendarmerie General Command) and agencies, all acting under the command of the President of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs. Remaining challenges include the need to further increase wastewater treatment, to reduce the high level of non-revenue water hovering around 50% and to expand access to adequate sanitation in rural areas. [145] The Kemalist view supports a form of democracy with a secular constitution and Westernised culture, while maintaining the necessity of state intervention in the economy, education and other public services. Northerners, by the Black Sea have softer accents. with just 27% of the total population living in rural areas.

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