[35] In that vein, Mao Zedong Thought, Mao Zedong's updating and adaptation of Marxism–Leninism to Chinese conditions in which revolutionary praxis is primary and ideological orthodoxy is secondary, represents urban Marxism–Leninism adapted to pre-industrial China. [52] The 1908–1917 period was one of disillusionment in the Bolshevik party over Lenin's leadership, with members opposing him for scandals involving his expropriations and methods of raising money for the party.

In 1948, circumstance and cultural personality aggravated the matter into the Yugoslav–Soviet split (1948–1955) that resulted from Tito's rejection of Stalin's demand to subordinate the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to the geopolitical agenda (economic and military) of the Soviet Union, i.e.

In the 1937–1938 period, the NKVD arrested 1.5 million people, purged from every stratum of Soviet society and every rank and file of the party, of which 681,692 people were killed as enemies of the state. [109] According to Walter Scheidel, they were correct to the extent that historically only violent shocks have resulted in major reductions in economic inequality. Theory based on Marxism applied and interpreted by Lenin.

In the First Indochina War (1946–1954), the Việt Minh led by Ho Chi Minh defeated the French re-establishment of European colonialism in Vietnam. To the Albanian Marxist–Leninists, the Chinese dealings with the United States indicated Mao's lessened, practical commitments to ideological orthodoxy and proletarian internationalism. Majority Rule does not apply in Leninism.

In addition, Marxist–Leninist states have been responsible for mass religious persecution[15] (such as in the Soviet Union and in China), ethnic cleansing[143][144] (such as the forced population transfer in the Soviet Union), forced collectivisation and the use of forced labor and concentration camps[15][16] (such as the Soviet gulags and Chinese laogai). In Asia, the Vietnam War (1945–1975) was the second East–West war fought during the Cold War (1945–1991). As the vanguard party that guided the establishment and development of socialism, the communist party represented its policies as correct.

In the communist society of upper-stage economic development, the elimination of alienating labour (mechanistic work) depends upon the developments of high technology that improve the means of production and the means of distribution. That personal and societal emancipation from poverty (material necessity) would maximise individual liberty by enabling men and women to pursue their interests and innate talents (artistic, industrial and intellectual) whilst working by choice, without the economic coercion of poverty.

In: James D. Wright (editor-in-chief), Lisichkin, G. (1989). In a secret meeting at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Khrushchev denounced Stalin and Stalinism in the speech On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences (25 February 1956) in which he specified and condemned Stalin's dictatorial excesses and abuses of power such as the Great purge (1936–1938) and the cult of personality. [42][43] Although the periods and countries defined as state capitalist or revisionist vary among different ideologies and parties, all of them accept that the Soviet Union was socialist during Stalin's time.

Difference between Marxism and Socialism may be a bit difficult to understand to some. Government that emerged after World War I. [7] Marxist–Leninists generally support internationalism and oppose capitalism, fascism, imperialism and liberal democracy. [158] Graeme Gill argues that "[Stalinism was] not a natural flow-on of earlier developments; [it formed a] sharp break resulting from conscious decisions by leading political actors." Government type that originated during French Revolution.

In Cyprus, Dimitris Christofias of AKEL won the 2008 presidential election. 1848: Socialist Revolutions swept Europe. AKEL has consistently been the first and third most popular party, winning the 1970, 1981, 2001 and 2006 legislative elections. The other Warsaw Pact regimes also fell during the Revolutions of 1989, with the exception of the Socialist People's Republic of Albania that continued until 1992.

Tooley, T. Hunt; Várdy, Steven, eds. Polish Marxist Rosa Luxemburg dismissed the Marxist–Leninist idea of a "vanguard", arguing that a revolution could not be brought about by command. According to Ion Marandici, a Moldovan political scientist, the Party of Communists differs from those in other countries because it managed to appeal to the ethnic minorities and the anti-Romanian Moldovans. [93] In 1990, a second national election installed to government a majority of non-Sandinista political parties, to whom the FSLN handed political power. [137], As a basis of Marxism–Leninism, the philosophy of materialism (the physical universe exists independently of human consciousness) is applied as dialectical materialism (a philosophy of science and nature) to examine the socio-economic relations among people and things as parts of a dynamic, material world that is unlike the immaterial world of metaphysics. [72] The ranks and files of the party were populated with members from the trade unions and the factories, whom Stalin controlled because there were no other Old Bolsheviks to contradict Marxism–Leninism. After a stalemate confrontation, the United States and the Soviet Union jointly resolved the nuclear-missile crisis by respectively removing United States missiles from Turkey and Italy and Soviet missiles from Cuba.[92]. However, Gill notes that "difficulties with the use of the term reflect problems with the concept of Stalinism itself.

Anti-Leninism in the context of Russian communism can also be seen in the context of those individuals that wanted Lenin removed as state leader during his reign of 1917–1924, which was both from moderates who saw policies such as war communism as too extreme and hardliners who saw policies such as the New Economic Policy as a capitulation to capitalism. The example is the European Scramble for Africa (1881–1914) in which imperialism was safeguarded by the national military. It was the official state ideology of the Soviet Union and other ruling parties of the Eastern Bloc as well as the Communist International after Bolshevisation.

Both Bolivia, Canada and Uruguay faced Marxist–Leninist revolution in the 1960s and 1970s. [12][13] In the late 1930s, Stalin's official textbook History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks) (1938) popularised the term Marxism–Leninism among communists and non-communists. The focus is on growth of the nation. Leninism vs Socialism Characteristics: While comparing Leninism vs Socialism characterisitcs it is essential to consider the benefits and demerits of both the types of governments. This include China, Cuba, Laos and Vietnam.

[152] She further argued that it is neither Marxism nor Leninism, but rather a composite ideology that Stalin used to expediently determine what is communism and what is not communism for the countries of the Eastern Bloc.

Leninism vs Fascism History: Comparison of Leninism vs Fascism history tells us how these types of governments have evolved over time.

[48][61] For Bolshevik Russia, the 1921–1924 period featured the simultaneous occurrence of economic recovery, famine (1921–1922) and a financial crisis (1924). [98] In Ethiopia, a Marxist–Leninist revolution deposed the monarchy of Emperor Haile Selassie (1930–1974) and established the Derg government (1974–1987) of the Provisional Military Government of Socialist Ethiopia. Comparison of Leninism vs Socialism proves to be significant when we are studying different types of governments. Honecker was pressured to resign from office and the new government committed itself to reunification with West Germany. [120], In Marxism–Leninism, elections are held for all positions within the legislative structure, municipal councils, national legislatures and presidencies.

The Salvadoran Civil War (1979–1992) featured the popularly supported Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front, an organisation of left-wing parties fighting against the right-wing military government of El Salvador.

Such freedom of action allowed local communist functionaries much discretion to interpret the intent of orders from Moscow, but this allowed their corruption. The production decisions are regulated by the central planning authority hence socialism leads to better efficiency. [84] On concluding the Great Patriotic War (1941–1945), the Soviet Union was a military superpower with a say in determining the geopolitical order of the world. The revolts culminated with the revolt in East Germany against the Marxist–Leninist regime of Erich Honecker and demands for the Berlin Wall to be torn down.

Leninism comprises political and socialist economic theories for practical application to the socio-political conditions of the agrarian early-20th-century Russian Empire. Although a military failure for the guerrillas and the army, it was a successful psychological warfare operation that decisively turned international public opinion against the United States intervention to the Vietnamese civil war, with the military withdrawal of the United States from Vietnam in 1973 and the subsequent and consequent Fall of Saigon to the North Vietnamese army on 30 April 1975. [39][40] According to North Korea: A Country Study by Robert L. Worden, Marxism–Leninism was abandoned immediately after the start of de-Stalinisation in the Soviet Union and it has been totally replaced by Juche since at least 1974. Unrest and eventual collapse of Marxism–Leninism also occurred in Yugoslavia, although for different reasons than those of the Warsaw Pact. In Berlin, the German government and their Freikorps mercenaries fought and defeated the Spartacist uprising which began as a general strike. [37] Juche has been described as a version of Korean ethnic ultranationalism[38] which eventually developed after losing its original Marxist–Leninist elements. [110], Marxist–Leninists respond to this type of criticism by highlighting the ideological differences in the concept of freedom and liberty. French: 'Social' and 'Socialisme' + English: 'Social' = Socialism, Absence of business fluctuations, Absence of monopolistic practices, Better welfare, Economic growth, Greater efficiency. [47] Such Stalinism also subordinated the interests (political, national and ideological) of Asian and European communist parties to the geopolitical interests of the Soviet Union. As promised to the Russian peoples in October 1917, the Bolsheviks quit Russia's participation in the Great War on 3 March 1918.

In practise, the formalities of political participation (the electoral plurality of a multi-party system with the State Duma and the Russian Constitution of 1906) were the Tsar's piecemeal and cosmetic concessions to social progress because public office remained available only to the aristocracy, the gentry and the bourgeoisie. Since 2006, the FSLN has returned to government, winning every legislative and presidential election in the process (2006, 2011 and 2016). Mao Zedong's pragmatism permitted geopolitical rapprochement and facilitated President Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China which subsequently ended the policy of the existence to Two Chinas when the United States sponsored the People's Republic of China to replace the Republic of China (Taiwan) as the representative of the Chinese people at the United Nations.

[79] Organised religion was repressed, especially minority religious groups.

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