Several phases of collectivization and decollectivization and competition among different groups with various forest interests (Caiyuan Tree Farm, Shareholder Tree Farms, Four-Liao Tree Farm, household forest plots) result in loss of confidence in property rights, Loss of confidence in property rights cause over logging & deforestation, Local officials and national government implement logging bans, Logging bans bring debts, increased conflict, and compensatory funds that do not contribute to social infrastructure, Social dysfunction around forestry and failure of forest management to generate income results in increased deforestation and declining infrastructure, Knowledge of Chinese fir plantation management and history of economic dependence on timber, including sales of timber to the state, Post-1949: confiscation of and redistribution of private land titles from large landowners to poor and landless peasants, Mountainous landscape with many nontimber forest products, Mono-ethnic population (Yi) organized in villager groups (Kaimen and, Pre-1949: History of public lands (open access, shifting cultivation by “private” users, community use), 1982 3-Fixes policy shifts forest rights to individual HHs; length of tenure increases from 15 to 70 years in 1998, Natural villager groups interpret policy differently, with Kaimen Villagers leaving majority of forest in, Outsiders claim rights to continue mushroom harvesting in Kaimen Villager collective forests, After invasions by outside villagers, Kaimen Villagers establish security force to protect mushroom resource and establish rules of access and benefit sharing, Reliance on agriculture and non-timber forest products; scarcity of timber for economic use, Post-1949: Property rights (including exclusion) reassigned to natural villages, with remaining degraded forests divided equitably among HHs. “Private Vs. Community Management Responses to De-collectivization: Illustrative Cases from China”. By using our website, you consent to the use of cookies. Please make sure to get there 15 minutes early. In addition to the collective property rights held by production teams, according to an amended Working Act of the People’s Commune (September 27, 1962), 5–7% of all arable land and waste land (e.g., barren hills) allocated to a production team could be allocated as family plots to individual households.
For a more thorough explanation of this terminology, see, e.g., Zhu and Jiang, 1993. With episodes of change in tenure, overharvesting occurred more than once. Until 2001, however, Miheimen Village villagers enjoyed open access rights to these forests, both within and outside the villager group, for the collection of foliage for fertilizer, firewood, and poles to use in cultivating beans, medicinal herbs, pine needles for festivals and weddings, and mushrooms. Forest Policy and Economics, 22, 9–17. Change, 36, 237–62. Since 1981, the ownership of forests and forestlands in the Caiyuan Village Tree farm has remained unchanged. Assignment of specific rights to user types over specific forest resources in Caiyuan. DOI: This amount was redistributed to each household, depending on the estimated value of matsutake mushrooms to be collected in the coming season from household-contracted forests. The top-down centralized administrative state in China is successful in part because local resistance is, in fact, allowed when policies depart from local needs. A reply template can be chosen and inserted directly in every ticket’s reply box via a drop-down menu. Putzel et al., 2019). Different groups within the same administrative village implemented the policy differently: farmers had a degree of agency to interpret the Three Fixes, providing a space in which local villagers could make arrangements according to their particular interests. Over time, de jure property rights over forests in the two case villages have changed significantly, as they have throughout China, but they have been interpreted and implemented very differently.

In 1998, the local forest authority placed all forests in the tree farm under strict protection but offered 225 yuan per ha per year from the central government in compensation to Caiyuan Village. Frontiers of commodification: State lands and their formalization. Ultimately the system they put in place for access and benefit sharing became a model for the area and was upscaled to the county level. Brief analysis on the relationship between efficiency and equity in forest right reform in China. Ma, X., Heerink, N., Feng, S., & Shi, X. This eventually led to collective action in the form of invasion from neighboring villages. In 1959, small cooperatives were merged into larger “People’s Communes,” which devolved back to smaller cooperatives after only a few years. It also affected property inheritance and engendered a new sense of insecurity in forest ownership and land tenure. An introduction to IAD and the language of the Ostrom workshop: a simple guide to a complex framework. In S. B. Hecht, K. D. Morrison & C. Padoch (Eds. B., & Peluso, N. L. (2015). New certificates will be ready soon.”, During our final visit in February 2015, household forest title certificates had been received by the village committee: a vital step in implementing the CFPR. But they should not be overused. During the field survey in 2007, the original copy of the forest title issued to each household in 1998 was examined. In Miheimen Village, little timber harvesting was possible because of a scarcity of commercially valuable species and poor transportation; households depended more on agriculture. In practice, forests in Miheimen Village are classed into five different categories based on purpose and ownership (Table 4). Land5 ownership remained vested in the collective and was inalienable; however, forest use rights were considered transferable, within the constraints of the contract period (Liu and Zhao, 2009).

These can not always be solved right away. In this post, we'll be breaking community management down into 4 parts: Community management wouldn't be possible without an ongoing social listening effort: monitoring the internet for conversations that matter to your brand. Community Management brings your brand to life online—like it's a real person with a real personality behind real interactions. something went wrong with your last batch of orders), consider writing a well-though-out message that's broadcasted to your entire audience, outlining your stance and any steps you've taken to fix the problem. According to the village head, 81% of households own a car—the highest rate of vehicle ownership rate in Nanhua County, where less than 5% of residents overall owned cars in 2014. Forests in the mist. 107–132). Analysis of institutional development following Ostrom’s (2005) IAD Framework. Successful social customer service is essential for the survival of many companies today. Changes in land use are strictly regulated.

In November 1999, more than 1000 people from seven neighboring villages entered the forests simultaneously in protest, collecting mushrooms in defiance. Not all members agreed, however, and the group had no consensus on how to proceed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Shareholder tree farms (gufenzhi linchang) were established by family clans (representing multiple households) in 1986, typically on degraded lands surrounding Caiyuan Village. DOI: Ph.D. thesis. International Journal of the Commons 14, no.
The key informants included all village political and religious leaders, selected elders, elite members, government representatives, and heads of both shareholding tree farms (gufeng linchang) and village collective tree farms (jiti linchang). Private vs. Community Management Responses to De-Collectivization: Illustrative Cases from China. China Forestry Development Report. 2020;14(1):445–64. Seven households initially participated in this afforestation project and became individual linyedahu. Community Management brings your brand to life online—like it's a real person with a real personality behind real interactions.

At the same time, people from the neighboring community occasionally harvested small volumes of timber on the sly, reportedly in amounts of less than 1 m3 per harvest, to avoid legal penalties under the Forest Law. Lin, J. Y. Annu. Customer complaints are almost unavoidable, and people tend to vent their frustrations online, which can be both good and bad for brands.

Be proactive about engaging with your community, not just reactive. The total forest area (745.8 ha) is divided into 18 collection plots. Of course, we can't talk about moderation without talking about customer complaints. In comparison, the legitimacy, equity, sustainability, and accountability of the collective management and use rights system of the Miheimen villagers group are apparent in the associated economic success and broader adoption of their model. Assignment of specific rights to user types over specific forest resources is shown in Table 3 and these arrangements are described as follows: Small-scale household forests. Don't be afraid to have a sense of humor. You can also create reply templates in WhatsApp Business. DOI:, Liu, J., Dong, J., Long, H., Xu, T., & Putzel, L. (2020). A template like the following may work in this case. Every comment you make online leaves a digital footprint. Traditional forest knowledge of the Yi people confronting policy reform and social changes in Yunnan province of China.

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